Subsquid Network is a decentralized query engine optimized for the batch extraction of large volumes of data.

Subsquid Network & Data Access in the Polkadot Ecosystem

The Polkadot ecosystem continues to grow, with numerous projects and innovations enhancing its versatility and robustness. One such significant addition is the Subsquid Network, a decentralized query engine designed for efficient, large-scale data extraction. This article delves into the details of the Subsquid Network, its components, and its role within the broader Polkadot ecosystem.

What is Subsquid Network?

Subsquid Network is a decentralized query engine optimized for the batch extraction of large volumes of data. It currently serves historical on-chain data from over 100 EVM and Substrate networks, as well as beta support for Solana and Starknet. The data includes comprehensive elements such as event logs, transaction receipts, execution traces, and per-transaction state diffs on EVM.

Components of Subsquid Network

The Subsquid Network comprises several complementary products, each serving a unique purpose:

  1. Squid SDK: A TypeScript toolkit designed for high-performance batch indexing. It sources data directly from the Subsquid Network without the need for an archival RPC, making it ideal for building custom APIs and data pipelines.

  2. Subsquid Cloud: A hosted service for deploying custom indexers and GraphQL APIs. It provides the necessary infrastructure to run and manage indexers seamlessly.

  3. Subsquid Firehose: A lightweight adapter that allows subgraphs to run against the Subsquid Network, bypassing the need for an archival RPC node.

  4. ApeWorx Subsquid Plugin: This plugin integrates the Subsquid Network as a fast data source for the ApeWorx framework.

Detailed Features of Subsquid Network

API Capabilities:

  • Raw event logs
  • Transaction data with receipts
  • Execution traces for selected networks
  • State diffs for selected networks


  • A production-ready private cluster running on Subsquid infrastructure (formerly Subsquid Archives)
  • A decentralized, permissionless network currently in testnet phase

Subsquid Use Cases

Subsquid Network’s capabilities make it suitable for various applications, including but not limited to:

  • Historical blockchain data retrieval
  • Custom APIs for specific applications
  • Real-time data synchronization and analysis
  • In-house data pipelines for efficient and low-cost data handling

Squid SDK

The Squid SDK is a robust toolkit for building efficient indexers. Key features include:

  • High-level libraries for ETL (Extract-Transform-Load) pipelines
  • Tools for decoding and normalizing raw data
  • Data sinks for Postgres, local or s3 files, and BigQuery
  • An expressive GraphQL server with schema-based configuration
  • Real-time data ingestion with seamless handling of unfinalized blocks and chain reorganizations

Subsquid Cloud

Subsquid Cloud offers a Platform-as-a-Service (PaaS) for deploying Squid SDK indexers. Features include:

  • Provisioning of compute resources and Postgres databases
  • Zero downtime migrations
  • High-performance RPC endpoints for real-time applications
  • Intuitive deployment management via web or CLI
  • Google Cloud-level SLA

Permissionless Public Network

The decentralized version of Subsquid Network is a testnet providing data for a growing subset of networks supported by the private cluster. It routes requests to network nodes responsible for specific data subsets via a local p2p gateway.

Open Private Network

The private data lake, formerly known as Archives, is a production-ready network running on Subsquid infrastructure. It serves as a stand-in for the permissionless network, with an identical API. The gateway is public and free to query.

Subsquid Tokenomics and Rewards

The SQD token is integral to the Subsquid Network, serving multiple roles:

  • Incentivizing Infrastructure Providers: SQD tokens reward node operators contributing storage and computation resources.
  • Curation of Network Participants: Delegation of SQD tokens allows for permissionless selection of reliable node operators.
  • Fair Resource Consumption: Locking SQD tokens allows consumers to increase rate limits.
  • Governance: SQD tokenholders participate in network governance, voting on protocol changes and proposals.


The Subsquid Network is a crucial component of the Polkadot ecosystem, providing an efficient and decentralized solution for large-scale data extraction and access. Its innovative architecture and comprehensive features make it a valuable tool for developers and enterprises looking to leverage historical and real-time blockchain data. As it evolves, Subsquid Network promises to play a significant role in the growth and development of Web3 technologies.

Subsquid project details:

Web3 related projects:

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