Polkadot Virtual Machine

PVM (Polkadot Virtual Machine) Explained

PolkaVM is a high-performance, secure RISC-V based virtual machine for smart contracts within the Polkadot ecosystem.

Exploring the Polkadot Ecosystem: Essential Tools

The Polkadot ecosystem has recently introduced a novel virtual machine called PolkaVM (Polkadot Virtual Machine), designed to enhance smart contract execution and possibly more. As an implementation in its early stages, PolkaVM signifies a significant step forward in leveraging RISC-V architecture for blockchain applications.

What is PolkaVM?

PolkaVM is a RISC-V based virtual machine aimed at offering a fast, secure, and efficient environment for running smart contracts within the Polkadot ecosystem. PolkaVM’s initial release, version 0.1, is a tech preview and remains a work-in-progress, not yet suitable for production use. However, its performance and security features present compelling reasons for its development.

Performance Enhancements

One of the standout features of PolkaVM is its performance. In initial tests, PolkaVM demonstrated significant improvements over other VMs. For instance, it clocked in at 10.7ms/frame (~93 FPS) on a specific test program, outperforming many of its peers like wasmi and Wasmer singlepass. This improvement is notable given that no deliberate optimizations have yet been applied to PolkaVM, suggesting a robust foundation that can be further enhanced.

Polkadot Virtual Machine Security and Sandboxing

Security is a paramount concern for any virtual machine, especially in a blockchain environment. PolkaVM has been designed with security as a core principle. Unlike some VMs that run host and guest programs in the same process, PolkaVM runs every guest program in a separate process. This isolation ensures that even if a guest program is compromised, it cannot access the host memory or other processes. Additional security measures include the use of seccomp to limit the system calls available to guest programs, significantly reducing the potential attack surface.

PolkaVM Minimal Dependencies

PolkaVM follows a philosophy of minimal dependencies, which not only improves compile times but also enhances security by reducing the risk of supply chain attacks. With only six dependencies totaling approximately 15,222 lines of code, PolkaVM is considerably lean compared to alternatives like wasmtime, which includes over a million lines of code across 134 crates.

Compatibility and Ease of Use

PolkaVM employs a WASM-like import-export model, making it accessible to developers familiar with WebAssembly. The virtual machine’s API, inspired by wasmtime, is designed to be intuitive, facilitating ease of integration and use.

PolkaVM Compilation and File Format

The compilation pipeline for PolkaVM involves two steps: first, compiling the guest program with a standard compiler like rustc into an ELF file, and then relinking this file using PolkaVM’s tool to generate a .polkavm blob. This approach allows for offline optimization and a reduction in program size, ensuring efficiency and simplicity.

The program blob format is custom yet inspired by WASM, featuring a header and a list of sections with IDs and lengths, allowing for fast, zero-copy parsing.

Polkadot Virtual Machine Future Development

PolkaVM’s roadmap includes several critical areas: implementing missing features such as gas metering, improving performance to match or exceed existing standards like wasmtime, ensuring the correctness of all functionalities through extensive testing, and enhancing the developer experience with better toolchains and debugging support.

Contribution and Community

The development of PolkaVM is open to contributions from the community. Those interested can help with implementation, design work, or simply follow the project’s progress. Active engagement and feedback are encouraged to refine and enhance this innovative VM.


PolkaVM represents a significant advancement in the Polkadot ecosystem, combining high performance, robust security, and minimal dependencies into a single package. While still in its early stages, the potential of PolkaVM to revolutionize smart contract execution and more within the Polkadot network is evident. As the project continues to develop, it is poised to become a cornerstone of Polkadot’s technology stack, driving forward innovation in blockchain technology.

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